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Wormian bones close by 6 months
Metopic suture (dividing frontal bone is usually closed by 2 years, but may persist as a normal variant)

MetabolicRickets, Hypercalcaemia (and Hypervitaminosis D), Hyperthyroidism
HaematologicalSickle Cell, Thalassaemia
DysplasiaHypophosphatasia, Achondroplasia, Hurlers
SyndromesApert, Crouzon (similar to Apert no syndactyly), Carpenter, Crouzon
MicrocephalyAtrophy or Dysgenesis

NeurologicalHaemangioblastomas commonly in the cerebellum (40%)
OcularRetinal angiomas (45%)
RenalCysts (75%), Multiple cystic neoplasms (at least 20%), haemangiomas
AdrenalFamilial phaeochromocytoma (15%), extradrenal paragangliomas
PancreasCysts (75%) Cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma, cystic islet cell tumours, haemangioblastoma
Epididymis Cystadenoma (characteristic lesion)
LiverLess common involvement with cysts, haemangiomas or adenomas (often coincidental and unrelated)


Normal 4 chamber MR. Arrow demonstrates the anotomical site of the membranous portion of the interventricular septum which allows a Gerbode defect to cause LV to RA shunting. Note the more apically located tricuspid valve compared to the more basally positioned mitral valve. 

Lesion                                  Characteristic Feature  
(including Giant Cell variant)
Foramen of Munro
Colloid Cysts Foramen of Munro/3rd Ventricle
Central Neurocytoma Septum pellucidum attachment
Choroid Plexus PapillomaBody/Temp Horn
MetastasesTrigone, Choroid Plexus 
Ependymoma4th Ventricle
Subependymoma 4th Ventricle
Epidermoid/Dermoids Fat containing


DrugsSteroids (particularly if treating SLE), +/- immunosuppressive therapy (look for a transplant kidney)
Connective tissue DisordersSLE, hypercoagulable states (protein S,C deficiencies), Polycythaemia Rubra Vera, rarely RA
AlcoholismHard to identify the independent contribution-lots of people drink!
Post-traumatic Neck of femur fracture
HaemoglobinopathiesSickle Cell, Thalassaemia
Caissons disease
GauchersLook for Erlen-Meyer flask deformity

(So my catchy mneumonic would be DCAPHPCGA –almost looks like a gene sequence)